Management Based on Biblical Principles – Integrity – The Most Pressing Leadership Issue of Today

Amongst the myriad of imposing challenges currently weighing upon American society and abroad, the most pressing leadership issue of today is the need for a genuine practice of integrity instilled in corporate and organizational cultures. This essay will discuss how the lack of honesty and transparency in business and other sectors of life have reaped disastrous results for those who fail to practice them. The discussion begins with a quote from The McKinsey Quarterly about the quandary corporate leaders face when attempting to balance the need for a company’s long-term health and reputation against short-term profits and personal gratification or gain.

In an interview with Daniel Yankelovich, The McKinsey Quarterly staff writers Mendoca and Miller (2007) commented, “As more and more executives come to recognize that a company’s reputation is an important strategic asset, many are understandably confused as they ponder the numerous social and political issues that now stand alongside simple profit as a measure of long-term corporate health.” (p. 1). Unfortunately, leaders in some of the largest and most well-known organizations have not been able to withstand the temptation to place profits or personal gain ahead of long-term corporate health and reputation. In fact, recent events in the (a) corporate, (c) financial, and (d) political sectors of the United States serve as prime examples of how the lack of honesty and transparency has led to termination and loss for all stakeholders including the individual, the organization, its employees and the community at large. Included in such examples are:

1. The accounting debacle that brought down such large corporations as (a) Enron (aided by Arthur Anderson), (b) Adelphia, (c) Tyco, and (d) WorldCom each of which was forced to reorganize or close for filing false financial reports in order to maximize the value of their respective stocks. (Wygal, 2004, p. 1).

2. The collapse of once mighty investment banks like Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch and Washington Mutual as well as America’s largest mortgage company, Countrywide Mortgage, due to the ill-conceived subprime mortgage lending scheme. This crisis has led to the disintegration of the United States’ housing market and subsequently to a steep decline in the global financial markets. (Duncan, 2008, p. 1).

3. The exploits of Illinois governor Rob Blagojevich who has allegedly attempted to sell the Senate seat of President-elect Barak Obama to the highest bidder and has now been impeached by the Illinois state legislature. (Bone, J., 2008, p. 1).

In all the above cases top level executives either hid the truth or used positions of authority for ill-gotten gain. Their unethical actions resulted in a short-term thrill ride with an ultimate end that left stakeholders and shareholders worse off than when they started. In contrast, in a Business Week article published in April of 2002, Wee points out that sticking to a high ethical standard allowed corporate giant Johnson & Johnson to weather short-term public relation nightmares tied to its tainted Tylenol product and continue doing business for the long-term. (p. 2). All these examples illustrate that the most pressing need for today’s leader is to learn how to set aside the intense pressure for short-term gains and instant gratification in order to instill high ethical standards that will ensure sustained growth and long-term corporate health and profitability. This is so because potential clients remain loyal to companies they trust.

Trust is a major key for sustained growth. If customers trust a company to consistently offer superior products and services on the up and up and at an affordable price, they will repeatedly frequent that establishment. On the other hand, if an operation seems seedy and underhanded, regular and potential customers alike will flee and take their business elsewhere.

Delegated Media Regulation Within the Context of Broadcasting in South Africa


This paper discusses the concept of delegated media regulation within the context of broadcasting in South Africa. It briefly discusses the history of media regulation during the apartheid period; the transformation of broadcasting media from an authoritarian government, to a liberalised media, the impact of the transformation with regards to internal media policies; focusing mostly in broadcasting media policy. The paper will then discuss the formation of independent regulatory agencies by government as delegated bodies; to monitor broadcasting media. These include the Independent Broadcasting Act of 1993 (IBA), the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (SATRA) and the merger to the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA), the Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa (BCCSA), and the existence of the Media Diversity and Development Agency (MDDA). In discussing these bodies, the paper will look at the role played by these organisations in regulating broadcasting media, and the impact they have in the development and monitoring of broadcasting media.

Brief History

Apartheid affected every single aspect of South Africa, including the media. Laws that regulated the media were tailor-made to restrict freedom of expression and subject the media to the extremes of the apartheid government. Before the rise of democracy, South Africa showed essential features of aristocracy; which consisted of whites, Indians and coloured people nominated to the legislative assembly. The ideology of apartheid brought division among the South African society along racial lines. The divisions in society and domination of the majority by the minority were reflected in policy formulation; which included stipulations that restricted the media (Fourie, 2004: 168). This was evident as the government exercised its powers in the broadcasting media. When the SABC was established in parliament, it was said to be the public broadcaster; but this was not the case. Because of political philosophies related to the political values of the society and those in power at the time, the SABC was the state broadcaster and not a public broadcaster; and as a result was said to be the apartheid state’s most powerful propaganda tool Dennis Jjuuko (2005: 3).

According to Jjuuko “The assumption to political power by the National Party in 1948 meant the Afrikanerisation of the SABC, which was achieved largely through controls of the board.” Jjuuko continues to say that during this time the SABC had to play a “significant role in the politics of the day, with no space to make independent editorial decisions.” This particularly had a negative impact on the importance on the SABC’s internal policies. As a result the SABC was referred to as “his master’s voice”, as it gave the government a platform to articulate the apartheid ideology, to control the people of South Africa; particularly blacks.

In support of this argument, one of the main laws that restricted media freedom was the one that reduced the broadcast/publication of activities of anti-government black groups. Fourie (2004) argues that from the apartheid laws “one can deduce that the public interest was very narrowly defined. (That) Many laws/policies of the apartheid regime only made provision for the interest of the minority and the security for their dominant position.”

Even though freedom of speech was in the constitution, it was not enshrined in the Bill of Rights, thus media freedom was not guaranteed. According to Fourie government/external policies forced the media to operate in a very restrictive legal framework; with more than 100 laws that restricted the conduct of journalists as well as media content. Government had the right to ban publications and to insist on the approval of media content before publication. This made the reporting of misconduct of government officials very difficult; and criticising the state was out of the question.

2. Transformation of broadcasting media

The transition to democracy during the mid 1990s raised questions on how to transform the media as an organ of “racist ideology into a forum of the advancement of national unity and equality” (Ashley Dawson). The transformation of the media incorporated issues of deregulation, liberalisation, diversification, industrialisation, convergence and privatisation. Also to be taken into account were economic issues, social and/ cultural issues, which include nationalism, local languages and cultural diversity; political issues-focusing on freedom of expression and freedom of speech, as well as the control and regulation of the media.

Early 1990, the National Party saw itself being influenced to take a liberal policy route in its broadcasting policies. This was due to the formation of a Task Group which was led by Professor H.C Viljoen, on Broadcasting in South Africa. The findings of the Task Group were not at all in favour of the apartheid government broadcasting policies. The recommendations were of a programming that “would cater for all sections of the general public” (Jjuuko, 2005). In a place of serving government, the SABC was to serve the public. The findings were clearly influenced by a functionalist paradigm and not power as was the case before.

Early 1994, the National Party (NP) and the African National Congress (ANC) agreed for the “SABC not to be used as a tool for political abuse” (Berger, 2004). Pressures rose as media practitioners were threatened by police and political activists, trying by all means to interfere with internal media policies and decisions. Media freedom was then enshrined in the constitution, as the right to information and freedom of speech.

Internal media policy

Internal policy can not be excluded from the external policy framework, for it is always formulated within the parameters of the external framework. This is due to the link between the media, economic and political structure of a country. Fourie (2001:190) states that “Internal media policy formulation takes place within the structure and operation of a medium itself. (And that) Gatekeepers are generally responsible for policy formulation on this level.”

A new political dispensation in South Africa impacted on the internal policy formulation of South Africa’s public broadcaster. There were also changes in the legal framework in the country, as the media could not broadcast nor publish certain information. “The unbanning of political organisations and political leaders in 1990 had an immediate impact on media internal policy” (Fourie). This was due to the fact that the apartheid news policy specified that the SABC would not offer a platform to opposition parties (Fourie, 2001). After 1990, the media experienced a more liberal working environment as the laws that restricted the media were amended; living more room for internal media policy.

As media democracy was in transition, government saw a need to delegate control to independent regulatory bodies to deal with media policy. These independent bodies would perform duties of allocation of frequency spectrum and licensing, the monitoring of broadcasters’ compliance with licence conditions, including content issues and competition, as well as protecting and upholding the editorial and programming independence of all broadcasters. All these changes were inevitably going to have an impact on both the power and importance of internal media policies over government external policies in both print and broadcasting media.

3. Independent regulatory bodies


Fourie argues that “The narrow articulation of the public interest by the previous government was also clearly reflected in telecommunications policy formulation and the implementation of this policy under apartheid.” As in broadcasting and print media, freedom to better services and access to this sector featured strongly in its policy formulation; also the application of universal service as a policy instrument reflected the historical inequalities of the South African society (Fourie, 2001).

The rise to democracy saw South Africa taking cognisance of the international trends; which included the deregulation of the telecommunications and broadcasting, and the phasing out of monopolies. Also technological developments which include convergence between broadcasting and telecommunications impacted on the regulation of both sectors.

The emergence of the first democratic elections in South Africa also lead to the transformation of the SABC as a public broadcaster; thus the formation of the Independent Broadcasting Act (IBA)1993, and the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of 1996. SATRA was established as an independent body to regulate the telecommunications industry. Also as the independent regulator SATRA had to balance the interests of consumers, and the stakeholders in Telkom as well as the market participants. The formation of these two bodies was due to the need to ensure the development of the media in areas of public broadcasting, commercial and community broadcasting, and lastly to guard against internal media policy.

As part of the transformation the IBA called for the Triple Inquiry, which stated that the independence of the media is a central public principle which ensures editorial freedom (Triple Inquiry Report, 1995). In 1995 the government indicated that it “fully recognised and accepted the role of the media to be a critical commentator on government activity in the country” and that “the media should be beyond the control of government” (Johnson, 1996: 297, sited in Steyn).

The IBA was subsequently merged with SATRA in 2000 to form the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA). The merger was to ensure effective and seamless regulation of the telecommunications and the broadcasting sectors as well as to accommodate the convergence of technologies. Through the formation of this independent regulatory body, it was then decided that editorial independence together with internal media policies were of outmost importance; that the broadcaster (using the SABC as an example) should safeguard its editorial independence to ensure its credibility as a national source of reliable and regular information.

As the democracy years rolled over, successive ministers of communication attempted to claw back some of the forfeited control over electronic communications, and correspondingly reduce some of the independence for the players involved. This trend has also been in broadcasting. “Government has felt that SABC has been law unto itself in deciding how to deliver on, and be accountable for, its legally enshrined mandate” (Berger, 2005). This is what led to the introduction of editorial policies in the SABC, which was initiated by the Broadcasting Amendment Bill of 2002. In embracing the importance of these internal media policies; parliament declared the independent regulator ICASA; which works at arms length from the government to approve them.

ICASA derives its mandate from ICASA Act of 2000, the Independent Broadcasting Act of 1993, Broadcasting act of 1999, and Telecommunications Authority Act of 1996. ICASA’s mandate includes the regulation of broadcasting in the public interest, and to perform adjudication functions. As part of delegated media regulation, ICASA works hand-in-hand with the Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa. The BCCSA was set up by National Association of broadcaster of Southern Africa in 1993 to adjudicate and mediate complaints against broadcasters/broadcasting licence holders.

ICASA also ensures fairness and diversity of views broadly representing South African society. One of its objectives is to ensure that in the provision of broadcasting services, the needs to language, cultural and religious groups, and the need of educational programmes, are taken into consideration (ICASA Position Paper 2000). It also promotes and encourages ownership and control of telecommunications and broadcasting services from historically disadvantaged groups. Again ICASA works with the Media Diversity and Development. Agency which also ensures the empowerment of previously disadvantaged groups.

3.2 The Media Diversity and Development Agency

After the 1994 democratic elections, the media in South Africa was still not reflective of the country’s diversity. The legacy of apartheid still played itself in various spheres of society, including the media, where the nature of the public discourse was shaped by patterns of ownership and control, such that the poor and disadvantage remained marginalised. The White Paper on Broadcasting Policy, 1998 concluded that, “Society benefits from free, independent, and pluralistic media.” It was then decided that a supportive policy environment was required; and in achieving this Government committed itself to corrective action.

This was due to the need to rectify the wrongs inflicted by apartheid in media development and diversity. Government took an initiative to set up an independent agency that will address problems of the media development and diversity in the country and provide assistance through loans and subsidies to the marginalised groups (MDDA position paper, November 2000). The MDDA’s mandate is to promote diversity and development in print, broadcasting and new media. It works with bodies dealing with Telecommunications, licensing and film. Also develops policies that are informed by ongoing research and evaluation.

4. Conclusion

It is of common knowledge that freedom of expression is one of the hallmarks of democracy; which requires a media that is free from state control. Before the democratisation of South Africa, the South African government was empowered to control the media, to limit free speech as it pleased. During this time newspapers were closed down, and anything that seemed to be giving voice to the voiceless, being a novel or a film, it was banned. Press freedom was at this time described as having “its left leg in plaster, its right arm in a sling a patch over the left eye, deafness in the right ear, a sprained ankle and a number of teeth knocked out” (Joel Merwis, 1979, in Berger 2004).

In redressing the historic imbalances caused by the apartheid policies, government saw it necessary to free the airwaves by delegating media regulation to independent bodies. This was and still is a way of ensuring democracy in the media sector. The telecommunications Green paper stipulates that, “telecoms is an important means of building democracy by giving citizens access to the information and telecommunications services that enable them to participate effectively in the decision-making process of society,” thus the formation of SATRA to guard against government interference.

ICASA and the MDDA also work hand-in-hand to ensure that “the central public interest principle in broadcasting is that of universal access, that there is a diverse range of language, religious, and cultural programming,” (MDDA, 2005). One can conclude and say the independent regulators are working towards harmonising dysfunctions; which can include opportunities for small media companies, challenges or problems around media policies to improve the functioning of broadcasting media as a whole.

Why Do Women Lose Interest In Nice Guys?

You first meet a woman whom you are really interested in, plucked up the courage to start an amazing conversation with her and then she even agrees to go out on a date with you! You are really happy as it seems as though your luck is changing when it comes to your romantic life, and so you do everything you hear women saying what they would like a guy to do for them: taking her out to nice restaurants, buying her things and showering her with compliments and so on. But then… something happens, She stops returning your call, she starts becoming distant and she says the words guys would not want to hear: “I like you more as a friend.”

Does that sound all too familiar to you? But you probably hate it more when she ends up being with another jerk or ‘badboy’ just 2 weeks later! So why did she lose interest in you in the first place?

First of all, you have to got to realize that being nice is not equivalent to being attractive. A woman’s attraction instinct is genetically programmed to guide her towards a man who will meet her basic need for safety and security. Most women say otherwise because this all comes really naturally and they probably aren’t even aware of this fact. If you doubt this to be true, just look for a woman who is attracted to a man who seems to be a slightly obnoxious ‘jerk’, and ask her what she actually sees in him. I am sure that 90 % of the time her answers won’t even make any sense at all, and sometimes she might even tell you she’s not even exactly sure herself!

So why would she still want to be with him? The reason is simple, because that guy is able to make her feel safe and secure, and that makes him really attractive to her. Of course this doesn’t mean that women are attracted to men who are disrespectful and men who mistreat them.

So how do you actually strip yourself of that ‘nice guy’ title and yet not be a complete jerk? It’s really simple yet difficult at the same time, as it would take a lot of self-analysis to be able to do so. Most of your guy friends probably would be clueless when it come to these things, and of course it would be even more pointless to seek your female counterparts for help. You just need to realize when you are treating women differently from the way you would treat a normal person, treating them as though they are of a higher social value, and stop doing that! That’s really all there is to it.

Anna’s "Aabra-Ka-Daabra Effect"

Who exactly is Anna Hazare was the first question I asked myself on 5th Apr 2011, the day when the frail and plain speaking 72yr old man dressed in plain white clothes pulled off his ‘fast-unto-death’ tryst to fight against the growing filth of corruption in India. I faintly remember hearing of this Gandhian then, but more importantly I wanted to figure out the magical aura inside him that infatuated such huge people support across the social strata pan India. Wondered whether it was the “Aabra-Ka-Dabra Effect”…because after all Annaji’s movement began at the Jantar-Mantar in New Delhi naah!

Giving more power to the people

At a phase in life when most of the septuagenarians hang their boots to celebrate retirement, Anna Hazare is selflessly working for the people and still going strong since the last 30yrs. The entire nation supported this gutsy guy who not only demanded the introduction of the Jan Lokpal Bill (Citizen’s Ombudsman Bill) but also humbly fasted until the civilian demands were met. I couldn’t fast like Annaji, but also couldn’t resist being a part of the “I am Anna” campaign against corruption. Thousands and thousands of people like you and me came out showing their solidarity all through the 4 days of the movement…and then…can the government of the largest democracies of the world even think of giving a deaf year to the people’s humble demands….I don’t really think so!

Well finally, the Jan Lokpal Bill which is an effective anti-corruption and grievance redressal system against corruption will be drafted and then passed by the government accepting all civilian demands for making it a 100% accountable and transparent document. Indeed, cheers to this not so young man who sacrificed for the progress of a young India.

India is not an Egypt

It was pretty heartbreaking when the Anna Hazare’s anti-corruption movement was drawing comparisons with that of the uprising in Egypt. It is like unintentionally belittling or undermining the fight put forward by our freedom fighters to give us our democracy way back in 1947. The anti-corruption movement in India is simply a rightfully honest demand that the people are putting forward to the established legislative, and then using the means of rallies to communicate our needs…vis-a-vis Egypt’s uprising for actual democracy.

Power of wired networks

The captain of the Pakistan cricket team must have criticised Indian media for its negativity, but look at what media has done to make this movement a big success. Undoubtedly, media traversed across the nation to churn out stories of the masses. Evenmore, tactfully pressurised the government to act now or loose people’s confidence in the system forever. Besides media, social networking and micro-blogging created a flurry of opinions, bringing together the unity of thoughts towards the greatest non-violent people’s movement after the Independence Day movement fathered by Mahatma Gandhi.

Joining hands with UN Convention

It is indeed time for India to be a part of the UN convention against corruption which crimilizes not only basic corruption such as bribery and embezzlement of public funds, but also trading the proceeds of corruption. The Convention which came into force way back in Year 2005 saw the approval and participation of 140 countries across the globe…except India which raised its hands rather than shaking its hands in partnership with this first legally binding international anti-corruption instrument.

Finally we got to walk the talk

So more power to the people, more power to India incorporation, more power for economic growth, more power to foreign direct investments, more power to spending on health and infrastructure, better and transparent utilisation of taxpayers money…but all this made possible only if we as individuals abstain from accepting or giving bribery, sifarish (reference), or anything that will chain the very purpose of this movement.

It’s really-really tough, but I will try. How about you?

The Sinister Trick All Women Should Know

In 1938 the play “Gas Light” debuted in London. The curtains open to a cluttered domestic scene in the salon of an 1880’s Victorian townhouse. A nervous woman, through the course of the evening, is variously berated, ignored, mocked and belittled be her self-assured husband who also flirts with the pretty maid who attends his wife. When the wife complains of his too-familiar attitude toward the staff he accuses her over being oversensitive, irrational and controlling.

As the scenes unfold, the other source of her anxiety is revealed; inexplicably the glowing gas lights which illuminate the house periodically flicker and dim and when she observes this, her husband assigns this to her imagination as well, not noticing any change in the lamps on the walls. She also claims to hear noises from the upper floors of the house – more evidence of her failing mental capacity, according to her husband. Slowly, the situation erodes her confidence in her own perception and the whole cast call into question her sanity.

Whilst her husband is out of the house on one of his undisclosed errands, a visitor is introduced – a police inspector has come to visit. He explains that the house so recently occupied by the couple was previously the residence of a woman murdered for her jewels by a man who was never caught but who also never found his prize as he ransacked the house after the murder. During the inspector’s visit, one of the gas light moments occurs but for the first time the wife is validated in her perception – the inspector sees it too! This is the pivotal moment for our heroine.

The inspector reveals his belief that the woman’s husband is the aforementioned murderer who leaves the house to secretly return through the neighbouring house to search the upper floors for the unclaimed jewels, covering his noisy exploits with a smoke-screen of behaviours and tricks which confuse his wife and make her too unsure to challenge him properly.

The play Gas Light appears to have been well received by both critics and audiences. In fact, it struck a chord so resonantly that the script has been performed consistently since 1938, as far a-field from London as the Philippines and as recently as this year.

The play was also adapted into various movie versions of the same plot (the black-and-white Ingrid Bergman version is particularly good). And most significantly, the name of the play has been used to brilliantly capture the special type of relationship dynamic that many women (and some men) experience at the hands of a certain type of partner – ‘gas-lighting’. Gas-lighting is the term used to describe the way some people manage to convince their partners that any concerns they have are imaginary, exaggerated or irrational, even being able to make some clueless or trusting types question their own perception and sanity.

Gas-lighting is most often done to smokescreen inappropriate romantic behaviour but can be applied to draw attention away from any behaviour the perpetrator couldn’t justify if scrutinised, like selfish financial choices. In essence, gas-lighting is a weird combination of a refusal to disclose information or negotiate decisions which should be jointly made, affront at being questioned, implicit or explicit questioning of the mental capacities of the other person, and unpredictable emotional withdrawal. In the susceptible partner, these tactics create confusion and anxiety which serve to dissempower and heighten dependency (more on that in another article).

What typically ends this psychological torture is either the ‘gas-ligher’ ending the relationship having satisfied their need for proof of their power by way of a complete break-down of their partner, or, some third party intervenes and provides the partner with enough validation of their ‘irrational’ perceptions that the smokescreen begins to clear and the naked truth is revealed. Such is the case in the original play – the inspector arrives to put the pieces of the puzzle together in such a way as the wife can see the sense in what previously made no sense.

Rather gratifyingly, the wife has her revenge for nearly being sent to the asylum. The inspector makes his suspicions known to the husband who tries to enlist his devoted and ‘irrational’ wife to help him escape justice. She obediently complies with her loathsome husband’s demands but manages to orchestrate his escape right into the clutches of the knightly inspector. As her husband threatens her one last time, she places the cherry on the rancid cake of his deception by claiming that he cannot hold her accountable as she is, of course, not responsible for her actions.

It will be the rare women who has not experienced some version of this treatment, from a man who exploits the stereotype of the irrational, emotional women in order to undermine her confidence in her own perceptions, as a way of disguising unacceptable behaviour. Some women have endured such well executed gas-lighting for such extended periods that their mental health is permanently damaged by the scars of anxiety and self-doubt. Now you have an alternative to doubting yourself – believing in your own perceptions and realising that such a trick could be played on us.

Share this article with the women you care about…

My Favorite Narcissist

In your lifetime you may have the misfortune of encountering a true narcissist. It is an experience you’ll never forget, that’s for sure! When I say ‘narcissist’ I don’t mean the type of person you usually think of; Hollywood actors, rock singers, newscasters or politicians and, of course, the ‘reality’ stars like the Kardashians. They are an especially cartoonish example of the self absorbed but this type of narcissist is common and usually benign.

No, the breed of narcissist I refer to literally suffers with a personality disorder so severe it negatively impacts their life and the lives of those who are close to them. It’s called Narcissistic Personality Disorder and is a long term pattern of abnormal reasoning, feeling and behavior, especially when interacting with other people. Their personalities are not organized in a way that makes sense to most people which is why, when you encounter a narcissist (N), you walk away feeling vaguely angry or sad or even bad about yourself without understanding why.

Narcissists are generally male, high functioning, incredibly charming and very intelligent. They are successful in their chosen field but have a history of alienating co-workers, colleagues, students, employees, and eventually family members. Most of the time they manage to maintain long term marriages and have children and, from the outside, they seem perfectly normal and agreeable until you have a close encounter with them.

To live with one would be a losing proposition indeed. To have one for a parent would be a nightmare that would eventually causes you to sever ties.

There are two kinds of narcissists: Cerebral and Somatic. Cerebral N’s get most of their satisfaction with self through their intelligence, academia and professional achievements. They would be high end college professors, researchers, physicians, etc. The character, Sheldon, from the TV show The Big Bang Theory, is a perfect, if not somewhat exaggerated example. Advancing age does not bother this type as they are usually capable of pursuing intellectual camaraderie as years go by.

Somatic N’s self image is found in their physicality. Examples of occupations that can draw them would be the upper ranks of the military, law enforcement or fire fighting. They consider themselves to be exceptionally attractive and exercise constantly, usually involving some level of body building. They love physical contests that allow them to showcase and prove their superiority and strength over other men.

They are quite proud of their sexual prowess and fancy themselves expert lovers, able to attract the opposite sex with little effort. They tend to deny and dread the physical signs of aging and, having little left to offer others in terms of personality and a lifetime spent alienating family and friends, they often suffer from depression and, sadly, end up elderly and alone.

An excellent internet resource on this subject is the site, Narcissistic Personality Disorder: How to Recognize a Narcissist by Joanna Ashmun. The following description of their inner reasoning cannot be improved upon so I’ll let her speak.

Narcissists have normal, even superior, intellectual development while remaining emotionally and morally immature. Dealing with them can give you the sense of trying to have a reasonable discussion with a very clever six-year-old — this is an age when normal children are grandiose and exhibitionistic, when they are very resistant to taking the blame for their own misbehavior, when they understand what the rules are (e.g., that lying, cheating, and stealing are prohibited) but are still trying to wriggle out of accepting those rules for themselves. This is the year, by the way, when children were traditionally thought to reach the age of reason and when first communions (and first confessions) were made. Narcissistic characteristics that are abnormal in adults are completely normal at six years of age and that the survival of these childish characteristics into adulthood is, essentially, immaturity rather than bad intentions.

Once you recognize what you are dealing with, their behaviors and demands can be quite predictable. Surprisingly, scientists have found that N’s the world over employ the same tactics to manipulate others. It’s as if they go to a Narcissistic Personality Disorder school to learn how to make others miserable. However, it is important to remember they honestly don’t realize how destructive and abusive they are to others. Although difficult to believe, no malice is intended on their part.

Overall, what the N needs most is the attention and admiration of others. Because they stopped maturing emotionally at about age six, there is very little inner self from which they can reflect, grow or enjoy memories of past relationships and the skill of self comfort and sense of pride in their own identity was never developed.

In reality, deep down, they despise and abhor themselves and cannot fathom how anyone could genuinely love them, so they sabotage relationships with their false, paranoid, arrogant façade. They unwittingly engineer their greatest fear; that of being abandoned and alone.

Far from being truly conceited, they are empty shells, lonely and desperate to be loved. Unfortunately, their abusive behavior causes the people who want to love them to eventually leave them and they never seem to comprehend they’re to blame; that they are the common denominator in a lifetime of dysfunctional relationships.

For instance, once you get to know them, they are self-absorbed and fantastically insensitive. They demean you and are quick to point out your weaknesses. They are bigger than life and are authorities on every subject. Their time, schedules, energy, drama and life issues always outweigh yours. At times, they’ll use your most personal belief system against you like a weapon, i.e., “You cannot be a good person and do or say or think so and so…”

They are experts at projecting their bad behavior onto you, making you feel guilty and you find yourself constantly apologizing to stay in their good graces. Trying to love them is a never ending roller coaster of emotions.

It’s as if they have fully grown, functioning bodies that look human but are hollow inside and therefore must fill that emptiness with the adoration you give them; in a sad way, it confirms to them that they really exist and are important and valuable. This attention and reassurance they seek is called Narcissistic Supply and, like a drug, they will do almost anything to get and maintain a quality source.

Whether or not they are consciously aware of it, they are always on the prowl for new and better sources of supply. When you encounter a true narcissist, they will sweep you off your feet with their incredible charm, intense attention and agreement with everything you say. They make you feel like the most intelligent, beautiful, charming, sexual, woman that they’ve ever known. You are SO special, even though you just met each other and he knows next to nothing about you.

You experience instant rapport, like electricity, because they are experts in assessing what you think about yourself and are careful to reflect back to you what you long to hear. NO ONE has ever made you feel this giddy and happy! It feels like a fairy tale because it IS a fairy tale. The N is not capable of receiving or giving real love.

This happens because the N is hypnotizing you, getting you tangled in his web and you unknowingly become his new source of narcissistic supply. This is done deliberately and methodically. Your brain is flooded with dopamine and oxytocin in amounts you’ve never experienced before. These chemicals are the ones responsible for the feelings of contentment, attachment, love, romance and the excitement of something new. Experts in psychiatry and the study of addictions liken the “high” you experience in the beginning of your relationship with a N to be as strong and pleasurable as heroin. And just as addictive. You will put up with an amazing amount of abuse from this person in the hopes of feeling that high again.

Once you are hooked you’ll enjoy a honeymoon period of high level mutual admiration for several weeks or even months before the cracks begin to show. Things will be going splendidly and all of a sudden you will say or do something the N perceives as critical and he will instantly and inexplicably turn 180 degrees and verbally attack you with such viciousness it will makes your head spin! This rage is completely out of proportion to the imagined criticism and is mind bending!

You’ll find yourself profusely apologizing for crimes you had no idea you committed, and he will ignore your pleas and tears until he feels you’ve suffered enough to be admitted back into his good graces. He punishes you by banishment or silence. It’s all downhill from there.

You must remember having a relationship with a narcissist is a losing proposition. He is literally not capable of loving anyone other than himself because he never developed empathy. He cannot identify with anyone’s feelings or needs, therefore everything is about him. And it always will be. You cannot improve him. You cannot love him enough to heal his personality. It’s impossible and the sooner you comprehend this, the better you’ll be able to make an intelligent decision on whether your relationship is worth the bother. You’ll give 99% and get 1% back and be told you’re lucky to get that much!

He is only capable of acting or imitating human emotions such as love, empathy and tenderness and what seems to you to be genuine feelings are the subconscious, learned behaviors he uses to control and manipulate others. He knows trust is important in a relationship but he finds it next to impossible to trust anyone, therefore he will lord the possibility of you earning his trust over you, almost like a carrot on a stick. One day you’re worthy of being trusted, the next day, you’re not.

Remember, it’s like being romantically involved with a six year old. At that age, the child is the center of his own universe. He is arrogant, pompous, and self-important, demands his own way rather than ask or negotiate, thinks his way is always right and, once started, will stick to a course of bad behavior or bad judgment regardless of the inevitability of a less than desirable outcome.

His feelings are crushed by the smallest of disagreements and he simply cannot accept being corrected. Because he is so anxious to be the best, be loved and praised any failure is very hard for him. He will go to extreme lengths to avoid admitting any wrongdoing. He will turn on you and throw a spectacular, raging tantrum to any perceived slight. He is a poor sport and can’t stand to lose. He is argumentative, quarrelsome, defiant, snippy, petty, competitive, combative, belligerent, verbally aggressive, vindictive and vengeful.

He extends little forgiveness and again, will punish you by withdrawing or silence. He will be very critical of others but expects friendships to be resumed immediately following tremendous conflict. He will verbally eviscerate you and turn around a few minutes later as if nothing happened and everything is just fine. This makes you insecure, questioning yourself and your judgment.

He must play one-upmanship with everybody. He cannot stand to be seen as inferior so he’ll compile a repertoire of stories to trot out every time someone else seems to have a better one. He has done more, seen more, been more places, experienced greater danger, been ill or injured more seriously, earned more honors, medals, accolades, etc. than anyone else. Ever. He works more hours and sacrifices more, has fantastically unusual hobbies and the most glorious plans for the future.

He is an expert at making anyone under his influence crave his approval but only gives it sparingly. He provides just enough of what you need emotionally to get you to stay; just a big enough hit of the narcissistic drug that hooked you to make you feel special, then he will emotionally distance himself in ways that keep you off balance. But no matter how much you invest in the relationship, you will NEVER, EVER regain or experience that initial, glorious high again.

Eventually, you begin to emerge from your stupor only to realize you don’t want to be used and abused anymore. You have given up so much of yourself emotionally, intellectually, physically, spiritually, etc., that you now barely function as an individual. But because he is everything to you and it is unthinkable to visualize living without him in your life, the thought of leaving is worse than a death because you know he is still alive.

What kind of fool falls for and is loyal to a narcissist? Women who are exceptionally nurturing, compliant, giving, loving, trusting, gullible, naïve and adaptable; whose greatest pleasure is to serve and please their mate. After years of narcissistic abuse, they find themselves totally dependent on and in awe of the N. They cringe at the thought of ever being without them because they have made the N their whole reason to exist.

There are only three outcomes to a relationship with a narcissist. You learn to live as a satellite that revolves around his world, giving up your autonomy, desires and personal needs; he eventually tires of your particular flavor of ‘supply’ and dumps and discards you like a used napkin, or you gather the courage to walk away from what you thought was the love of your life.

This leaves you to grieve what was just an illusion, a fairy tale, and is excruciatingly painful! To realize that you truly meant nothing to him, that he never really loved you because he is incapable of loving anyone other than himself, will nearly destroy you. It literally drives some women to suicide.

And to top off the agony, you must face the gut-wrenching fact that he will move on to another source of supply almost immediately. He feels no guilt or loyalty to you. He does not miss you. He does not think about you. You were like a good magazine that entertained him for a while which he then threw away in the garbage when he was finished reading. You were a thing used to temporarily fill him with the self worth he craves.

You remain for some time hooked to the memory of how those brain chemicals he triggered made you feel. You’re accustomed to trying anything to please him. You know you’ve been treated badly but you want nothing more than to pick up the phone and call him or email or visit him. You have to understand how completely he controlled you and that it will take considerable effort on your part to break that control and the addiction you have for him. Sometimes it takes years. The pain is breathtaking!

There are plenty of internet sites with ‘survivors’ of narcissistic relationships to help you and they will provide all the information, validation and support you’ll need to help you heal. The experience you have is so surreal that, almost like rape, until you’ve tried to love one of these people, you cannot possibly understand the injuries inflicted that scar you forever. You will always think of them as “my narcissist.” They are a permanent part of you and you will love and miss them the rest of your life.

The greatest tragedy is they are never satisfied, happy or content. They will never, ever comprehend that they don’t need to be perfect or better than everyone else to be lovable. They are worthy just as they are. Unfortunately, the love they so desperately need is the very love they destroy with such bitter, arrogant disdain. And it will break your heart!

Do the Words "In God We Trust" Violate the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause?

The words “In God we trust” does not violate the first amendment’s establishment clause. The clause reads: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” The words “In God we trust” does not pertain to any one religion or another, the word God is ambiguous referring to a supernatural being, applicable to a myriad of monotheist and polytheist religions alike. The common assertion that the words “In God we trust” is directly analogous to a Judeo-Christian God is fallacious.

Further, it is ignorant of the universality held across major cultures, beliefs and values spanning almost all nations and time periods. The central core idea of trust in a singular or central supernatural force or deity is found in nearly every major world religion, thorough polytheism and monotheism. For instance, in the Hindu religion they trust in Brahman, in Islam they trust in Allah, the ancient Egyptians trusted in the sun god as a central deity that breathed life onto this earth. The words “In God we trust” signify the United States’ adherence to the establishment clause by promoting a non-specific universal belief that encourages the free exercise of religion not the absence of it.

The establishment clause shows that the United States can show no bias toward any one religion; it is to therefore promote freedom of religion, not freedom of religion. The majority of opposition comes from atheists who claim that the words “In god we trust” found on U.S. currency violates their right to freedom of religion found in the establishment clause.

However, atheism is not a religion, it is the lack there of, Webster’s dictionary defines religion as: a personal set or institutionalized system of religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices. The antonym of religion in which atheism falls under is religionless which is defined by the 1913 version of Webster’s dictionary as “Destitute of religion.” This accurately describes atheism, as the centric core of this philosophy. Atheism being a philosophy deserves protection under freedom of speech but deserves no protection as an establishment of religion. Can you image the chaos if we allowed peoples personal philosophy to hold the same legal merit as religion? If this became legislation or court precedent the effects would be catastrophic.

During the draft during the Vietnam War, if you were a Quaker you were exempt from this obligation; due to freedom of religion the government cannot pass laws that violate your religion, because it is there for restricting “the free exercise thereof”. If personal beliefs and philosophies held the same merit as religion in U.S. state and federal law, than personal philosophies can be held as valid excuse for the war e.g. “I don’t agree with violence.” Further people could create their own holidays which would hold the same merit as religious holidays, which are in fact created from no religion but from their own personal philosophies.

Legal obligations like jury duty can be excused due to your personal philosophy against this obligation. This is in no means a slippery slope argument, but simply a cause-and-effect analysis of adopting the precedent restricting the words “In God we trust” into our English common law system. In accordance with such, it is rational to say that this precedent would cause personal philosophies to hold the same legal merit as religion in American jurisprudence. This argument is not amusing or anticipating, expansion of such precedent, but merely it’s effect as a de jure definition.

This court decision does not and will not address U.S. history as argumentation for original intent, nor will it try to adopt a new meaning or precedent to the constitution as in the “Living Constitution.” This decision relies on the U.S. Constitution verbatim, or what it says literally. “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” It says an establishment of religion, or a particular religion or faith not religion all together. In an article in Slate magazine the prominent atheist David Greenberg reads his own words into the constitution. He stated that the use of the word “God” denotes endorsement of a particular establishment of religion.

He reasons that the absence of the word “God” signifies a clear message advocating the absence of the word God in anything pertaining to the government, clearly voiced by its absence in this document. Greenburg states in his article The Pledge of Allegiance: Why we’re not one nation “under God.” “That the founders made erecting a church-state wall their first priority when they added the Bill of Rights to the Constitution reveals the importance they placed on maintaining what Isaac Kramnick and R. Laurence Moore have called a “godless Constitution.” (Greenberg , Par. 2)This statement is logically invalid and relies on speculation, a not what the document actually says verbatim, nor the original intent. He states this hypothesis as a matter of fact, as if he knew the founding fathers and knew their original indent. He cites historically inaccurate evidence that is extremely deceiving. He states “When Benjamin Franklin proposed during the Constitutional Convention that the founders begin each day of their labors with a prayer to God for guidance, his suggestion was defeated.” (Ibid)

In every weak argument there is always a shred of truth to help it stand, in this case Benjamin Franklin did make a motion to start each meeting with prayer. However it wasn’t “defeated” nor was it approved respectively it was just left alone all together. The philosophy was a hands-off, neutral approach, due to the disastrous articles of the confederation. This failure was partially induced by a superfluity of Christian prayer and dogma causing distraction. Regardless of original intent which is subjective, the constitution verbatim is what should take precedence. In reading this verbatim, we see that secularism and atheism are not establishments of religion. Therefore they deserve no protection under freedom of religion. Further, atheism is a philosophy; if we allow philosophies to have equitable rights as religions the results will be disastrous to our English common law system, inhibiting due process, and preventing enforcement of laws and obligations.

In sum, the words “In God we trust” does not violate the first amendment’s establishment clause nor freedom of religion therein, it promoting it. It promotes free exercise of religion by promoting a non-specific universal belief that encourages the free exercise of religion. Through the use of the words “In god we trust”, the State has not produced or regulated any religious establishment, nor has it given authority to any current religion. The words “In God we trust” do not coherence anyone to be associated or take part in any established religion. Additionally no other free-exercise rights or civil liberties are in conflict. The words “In god we trust” fully comply with the constitution.

The Issue About Premarital Sexual Relationships Among Teens

Teenage sexual activity is a major problem confronting the nation and has led to a rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), emotional and psychological injuries, and out-of-wedlock childbearing thus teenage pregnancies and premarital sex occurrences alarm every sector in our society particularly the church and health institutions. Substantial studies had been conducted to support this scenario. A Young Adult Fertility Survey (Yafs) disclosed that males are more into pre-marital sex than females but over the years, young women are catching up with men. The survey covered 20,000 Filipino youths aged 15 to 24 years old across the country. According to the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study by the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) and the Demographic Research and Development Foundation, 26 percent of our Filipino youth nationwide, from ages 15 to 25 years old, admitted to having a pre-marital sex experience. What’s worse is that 38 percent of our youth are already in a live-in arrangement.

The sexual revolution has ushered in a period where the average adolescent faces tremendous pressures to have sexual experiences of all kinds. Today, Pinoy teens get a higher exposure to sex from the Internet, magazines, TV shows, movies, and other media than decades ago, yet without any corresponding increase in information on how to handle the input. So kids are pretty much left to other kids for opinions and value formation when it comes to sex. Sexual misinformation is, therefore, equally shared in the group. Parents at home and teachers in school feel equally inadequate or uneasy to discuss the topic of sex with youngsters. The problem mounts because the barkada has a more profound influence than parents do, exerts pressure and expects the adolescent to conform to the rest of the them.

In our society, having sex outside marriage or before marriage is not acceptable especially that we are a Christian country where the sanctity of marriage is considered sacred be it civil or church wedding. But still a lot of people, particularly the young ones, were tempted to commit this act, discrediting the belief that sex is only for married couple and virginity is the gift one can give to her husband on the night of their wedding.

“Girls have sex to be loved, while boys love to have sex”. This romantic cliché is the most obviously sleazy yet devastatingly lines ever spoken. Men telling women that having sex is just their way of expressing their love, is about as threadbare saw a spider inviting a butterfly into her parlor; while women believe that having sex is their way of proving their love to a man. They gave all in the name of love to establish the truth of reality of their love. However, the question is: what if they are not meant to be? Later on, the women realize that the damage has been done. The guilt sets in and emotion like this has a great effect in their whole life.

The knowledge of pre-marital sex among the youth has been observed to be weak as shown by the increasing rate of unwanted pregnancies, case of abortions, use of contraceptives and the spread of sexually transmitted disease. Teens have the right to know more than the bare facts of menstruation menopause, pregnancies, etc. With the right information, the youth will be more cautious with their sexual activities.

Sexual intercourse in itself is neither morally evil nor good. It is the manner on which it was use that declares its morality. Like most things in life, it has to be done in the proper place, in the proper time and in the proper circumstances. Sexual intercourse should be practiced exclusively by those who are married (opposite sexes, of course) and should always be consensual, practiced in the spirit of love, and should always be in private. This is the only proper way of doing it.

The youth must wait for the right time before engaging in sexual acts, not because of the reason that it is an immoral practice but rather of the fact the risks involved such as abortion, unwanted pregnancy, getting the sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also ill effects on their mental, social and psychological being. Nevertheless whatever decision one will make, he/should be ready to face the consequences of their actions.

Unprotected sexual activity in adolescence brings with it the dangers of too early or unwanted pregnancy, induced abortion often in unsafe conditions, STDs, HIV infection and AIDS. In the 1994 YAFSS II, a great number of Filipino youth aged 15-24 had been actively engaged in sexual activity. About 1.8 M boys and 670,000 girls had sexual relations already. On the average, the first sex encounter happened at the age 18. The study also points to signs that girls were forced into sexual relations due to their inability to successfully negotiate refusal of sexual intercourse when not desired and are usually confronted with the threat of abandonment by the partner.

The presence of parents and parental supervision is a key factor that could regulate the spontaneity of sexual activity among young adolescents. Other factors associated with the adolescents early sexual experience are social interactions indexed by the frequency of going out with friends.

To enable adolescents and youth to cope with these challenging world, they should be provided with accurate information on their health concerns; make health services available and accessible to them; build their skills to enable them to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life and creates a safe and supportive environment that will nurture their growth and development. The influential adults such as parents, health service providers, teachers, legislators and people in the community should also have the skills to deal with adolescent issues and concerns.

To stay away from these harmful effects teenagers must maintain standards and understand their responsibilities. Teens today need to follow the law of chastity. Chastity is “a lifestyle that brings freedom, respect, peace, and even romance – without regret; Chastity frees a couple from the selfish attitudes of using each other as objects, and makes them capable of their love. Chastity is a very difficult lifestyle. Chastity means the successful integration of sexuality within the person and thus the inner unity of man in his bodily and spiritual being” (Catechism of the Catholic Church 2337). This comes to show that chastity needs to be practiced amongst our youth today. Teenagers are prone to premarital sex, and are especially influenced by the media’s casual attitude toward it. Teenagers today are bombarded with the image of premarital sex through advertising. You can not watch cable television without seeing people kissing intimately, or even having sex . Premarital sex is suggested everywhere in our society, as seen on billboards, in movies, and in magazines. Perhaps, if teenagers had more confidence, they would not be prone to, and influenced by these artificial advertisements. There is no better way for teenagers to protect themselves from all of the dangers surrounding sex except to leave sex for marriage. Sexuality in human beings was not designed to just be okay; it was designed to be extremely good! And it is great and wonderful when we use this special gift of God in the way He intended. Sadly, many people do not respect their sexuality as they should. Through immoral sexual behavior they belittle what God intended to be a very special experience.

Combating Terrorism in the 21st Century

Terrorism poses as one of the world’s most severe security risk in the 21st century. It is a negative concept with a believe in violence as a means of attracting national and international attention, achieving political, economic and social interest. Terrorism is dated right from the very beginning of human civilization but with increased cases as from the 19th century. For instance, anarchists in some rural parts of Italy and Spain employed terrorist means likewise their counterparts in France. Russian revolutionary movement before World War I had a strong terrorist element etc. In the 20th century, groups as the Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out their terrorist activities beyond the boundaries of individual countries. They were sometimes supported by established governments, such as those of Bulgaria and Italy under the Fascist leader Benito Mussolini.

Con temporal terrorism is more effective than those of the past due to technological advances, effective communication mediums, extensive worldwide connection and the availability of smaller size weapons.

Most co temporal terrorist activities are carried out by extremists with terrorist bases in countries like Afghanistan, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, etc. Recent terrorist attacks like the plane crash against the World Trade Centre in New York City and Pentagon, the bombing of the London underground railways, etc were carried out by the terrorist organization known as Al-Qaeda net work, as a Jihad against America and her Western allies. There are smaller terrorist organizations in different parts of the world but the vast net work is coordinated by Bin Laden the founder of Al-Qaeda. People live in the United States in relative security until 9/11 when the terrorists stroke and brought down the twin towers of the world trade centre and Pentagon, sending many who came for business to their graves. Thousands used the London underground railway in relative security and safety for several years until July 7 2005 when the terrorist strike killing many and wounding others. Egypt Nile resort was an important spot for tourists until the terrorist’s stroke and killed over 300 persons. India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Lebanon, Iraq, Palestine Israel, Kenya in Africa etc have all witness severe insecurity as a result of terrorist assaults. Terrorism has increased insecurity worldwide. People are no more certain with their safety as they travel or work in different places. The security risk posed by terrorism, has changed the course of world affairs. Billions is spent in the fight against terrorism worldwide, yet the threat is still here with us. So much is still needed to curb the plight of terrorism.

Combating Terrorism

There is a solution to every problem, an answer to every question. Terrorism has its solution in both pro-active and reactive measures. Pro-active measures are preventive while reactive measures are restrictive measures. Pro-active measures are less expensive measures, while reactive measures are more expensive. To curb terrorism in the 21st century, humanity must be more pro-active than reactive. (Prevention is better than cure).

Pro-Active Measures

i) Enlightenment: One of the most effective pro-active measures in curbing terrorism is investing towards enlightenment. Most at times, humanity ignores the factor of enlightenment as a means to resolving conflicts and resorts to weapons of mass destruction. This is great ignorance. Enlightenment can go a long way in providing solutions to conflicts in which the use of weapons of mass destruction cannot. Every problem has its solution in knowledge. In fact, ignorance is the platform for every form of inhumanity. Ignorance is the greatest instigator of violence and destruction. Societies where terrorism is applied as a means to achieving political, social and economic interests are societies with perverted knowledge and unenlightened nationals. Until humanity realizes the destructive effect of ignorance and the superiority of enlightenment in resolving human conflicts, humanity will continue in unnecessary loss of resources in her search to resolve conflicts.

Enlightenment is the sense of being correctly or rightly informed, instructed, inspired and learned. Enlightenment is the greatest need of every human being with respect to proper moral and ethical behavioural patterns. To order the behaviour of people with respect to right morals and ethics, enlightenment is imperative. One of the weaknesses of the world’s education is its deficiency in knowledge with respect to proper understanding of life and social sciences. This has made the world poor in her morals and social ethics, leaving us in an imbalance with respect to our civilization. The world has improved in her scientific and technological breakthroughs but failed in having humanity to live together, enjoying all we have in love, peace, harmony and brotherliness.

If humanity will balance up her civilization with proper human relation and operation, she must accept an educational revolution characterized by absolute focus on achieving complete quality and positive human development. (Mental, physical, moral and social). Such educational revolution will produce balanced individuals and societies which will express proper understanding, consciousness and awareness in relation to life’s demands.

Ignorance is not the lack of information but the absence of positive and quality knowledge. Terrorist individuals and societies are informed to some extent but their actions reveal their ignorance with respect to positive and quality knowledge.

No properly knowledgeable individual or society can encourage terrorism. Quality and positive knowledge have a way of enlightening individuals and societies with respect to proper behavioural and ethical pattern to human relation and life’s demands. It is knowledge which illuminates, motivates, prepares, activates, challenges and transforms the human life and mind for quality operation and productivity.

The world needs a new educational concept to conquer terrorism. We may not be able to change the mentality of those who are currently intoxicated with the terrorist ideology but through quality education, we can influence and change the younger generation towards quality living in the future of this century and millennium. “Enlighten the youths” is the slogan for a long term solution to terrorism. If all what is invested in the production of weapons of mass destruction and the deployment of soldiers around the world as a means towards the defeat of terrorism can be invested in propagating the concept of quality education. I believe much will be achieved to curb the threat of terrorism.

ii) The rule of law: The rule of law deals with stipulated standards by which a society is governed, right and wrong determined for the purpose of justice. Laws are principles or stipulated standards made by men to order the behaviour of individuals and to determine the operative dynamics of a setup, society, nation or the world. In a setup, laws may take the form of rules and regulations. While in a society or nation, laws may take the form of constitutions of government, legislation or judicial opinions.

One of the pro-active measures in curbing terrorism is for every society to establish legislative laws, adopting constitutions of governments and judicial opinions which abolish every form of terrorist actions and the propagation of terrorist ideology. Every society without laws against terrorism will inevitably become the breeding ground for all forms of terrorist ideology and action. Terrorism thrives in societies which provide safe grounds for their activities. If every nation of the civilized world will enforce laws against terrorism, then terrorism will soon be history.

(iii)Sharing intelligence: Terrorism can be prevented if intelligence sharing between citizens and their governments and between nations of the international community is effective. Intelligence sharing deals with the provision of needed information by concern individuals, intelligence services and concern groups with respect to terrorist plans and activities before they are carried out. To prevent terrorist attacks, intelligence sharing between nations of the international community must be efficient and effective. This is equally a preventive or pro-active approach to terrorism.

Reactive Measure

These are emergency measures intended to restrict and to curb terrorist actions. These measures involve diplomacy and the use of force.

i) Diplomacy: Diplomacy in restricting and curbing terrorism has to do with dialogue with designated terrorist groups, in search of their grievances and methods of resolving them. In fact, the policy of not negotiating with terrorists is not just working. Governments and the international community should review this policy and go into negotiations and dialogue with terrorist groups in search of their grievances.

Most terrorist groups have grievances which can be resolved through diplomacy. In fact, most terrorist attacks are intended by the terrorists to attract national or international attention to certain plights and grievances. Thus, diplomacy can be applied nationally or internationally as a means to identify and resolve grievances which instigate terrorism. When diplomacy fails?

ii) The use of force: This is a reactive measure intended to apply pressure on terrorist groups so as to restrict their activities. It is worthwhile to note that, force is only necessary when all avenues of diplomacy fail. Force may take the form of sanctions. These sanctions may involve economic and arms embargoes or international isolation against terrorist organizations and societies which sponsor terrorism.

Secondly, force may involve military intervention. The use of force is necessary because certain terrorist groups or societies may never accept diplomacy and may never comply with standards. They may want to achieve their aims no matter what. Such recalcitrant individuals and terrorist groups need to be brought to order through the use of force. It needed force to stop the ambition of Hitler. After world leaders applied diplomacy and failed, force was the only option which arrested Hitler’s ambition to conquer Europe. It was force which brought the end to Iraq’s occupation of Kuwait, etc.

When terrorism resists the above measures, humanity must now depend on Divine intervention as the final solution.

iii)Divine intervention: God works in the affairs of men. I believe it was Divine intervention which shaped history throughout the ages. When human means fail, Divine intervention is imperative. Divine providence can cause the collapse of a negative system. There is nothing impossible with divine intervention. In our quest for solution to terrorism, we should not leave aside Divine intervention.

Secrets to Attract Women – Why 90 Percent of Guys Fail

No matter how much we women try to kid ourselves and think that we’re all completely individual people and that there’s no way to really attract any woman, there are several things that never fail to get a woman interested in a given man out of all the other men in the bar / club / room. The following are the traits that appeal to and attract all women, regardless of looks, age, interests, etc.

Don’t dress like a bum – Although this might seem obvious to most and comical to some, a simple glance around any bar / club by any woman (trust me!), will reveal many completely clueless men dressed like crap. Now don’t get me wrong, this is not snobbery and the goal is not to attempt to look as rich or wealthy as possible – built simply to be well presented.

Women go to great lengths to get ready to go out for a night on the town, for hours in advance. We lay out different outfits to decide what to wear, do our hair (often redo it several times), bathe, use creams and apply makeup, and much more – simply to get ready for an average night at a club. Now why would a girl that put in all that time and effort into looking good, go out to hook up with some guy in a dirty t-shirt and jeans with (oh what style) a baseball cap. Think again. If you look like you just fell out of bed, plan on going back there, alone.

Confidence – No matter what a woman tells you about the type of guys that she likes (“kind, sweet, thoughtful, etc.”), I’m going to let you in on the real secret of what women truly want in ANY man, and that’s confidence. It is without a doubt, the single most attractive thing to any and all women. Why do you think that so many smart, attractive and successful women go out with such jerks and put up with their lies, mistreatment, B.S. and drama? It’s not the fact that the guy’s a jerk that they like, it’s the simple fact that most jerks are confident. Being confident without being a jerk is the biggest turn on any woman could hope for.

Humor and Intrigue – All women love a mystery. This doesn’t mean you have to be aloof or rude, but at the same time realize that most guys talk way to much about themselves (and bore us to tears!). Just don’t give it all away at once, hold a few bits of information back (a cool hobby, an exciting vacation you took) and tell her at a later time. By remaining a bit mysterious you’ll not only be way ahead of the competition, you’ll also have a quality that fascinates most women.

Also, Humor is important. I’m sure you’ve heard the phrase “Keep her laughing and you’ve got her” or something similar. Being spontaneous and funny is so sexy because you not only convey having a sense of humor, but also intelligence and confidence, all at the same time! If you’re naturally witty, this can be like Viagra to the right woman! Just remember not to go too overboard (you’ll risk seeming “try hard”) and no joking about taboo subjects (like religion, politics, or rude humor).

These are the “killer 3” rules that 99% of women respond to, and used together properly, are your secret weapons of seduction.